Monday, September 27, 2010

Consolidation of NJ schools

Fine Print: Senate Bill 2261
Proposed legislation would meld New Jersey’s nearly 600 school districts into 21 county-administered ones.  More here.

Friday, September 24, 2010

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

2010 EduJobs Money

A complete list of which districts received how much federal money can be found here.

Core Plus Research

Core-Plus Mathematics is a four-year curriculum that replaces the traditional sequence with courses that each feature interwoven strands of algebra and functions, statistics and probability, geometry and trigonometry, and discrete mathematics. The first three courses in the series provide a common core of broadly useful mathematics, while the fourth continues the preparation of students for college mathematics and statistics courses. The curriculum emphasizes mathematical modeling, using technology to emphasize reasoning with multiple representations (verbal, numerical, graphical, and symbolic) and to focus on goals in which mathematical thinking and problem solving are central. Instructional materials promote active learning and teaching centered around collaborative small-group investigations of problem situations, followed by teacher-led whole-class summarizing activities that lead to analysis, abstraction, and further application of underlying mathematical ideas.


One study of Core-Plus Mathematics that falls within the scope of the High School Mathematics review protocol meets What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) evidence standards with reservations. The one study included 1,050 high school students in 11 schools in multiple states.
Based on the one study, the WWC considers the extent of evidence for Core-Plus Mathematics on high school students to be small for math achievement.


Core-Plus Mathematics was found to have potentially positive effects on mathematics achievement for high school students.

Saturday, September 18, 2010

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

Everyday Mathematics

One study of Everyday Mathematics® that falls within the scope of the Elementary School Math review protocol meets What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) evidence standards with reservations.  The study included 3,436 elementary students in third through fifth grades in a large urban school district in Texas. The district used the first edition of Everyday Mathematics.  Based on this study, the WWC considers the extent of evidence for Everyday Mathematics® on elementary students to be small for math achievement.  Everyday Mathematics® was found to have potentially positive effects on math achievement for elementary students.
Read more here

Thursday, September 9, 2010


WWC Quick Review of the Report "The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Third Year Report"

The authors found no significant differences between math and reading achievement of students who used a voucher to attend private school and comparison students from Milwaukee Public Schools.

Read more here

Wednesday, August 18, 2010

Update on Common Core

I have put together a page with links to the common core and articles about it.
Much to read pro and con.
Read it here.

Former Govs. Prod States on Digital Education

Former Govs. Prod States on Digital Education

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

California Panel Scrutinizes Common Standards

California Panel Scrutinizes Common Standards

Unlike in NJ - some states are analyzing the standards before adopting them.

Friday, June 18, 2010

Explain changes to standards

Will NJDOE ever explain the differences between the NJ standards and the common core?
Well, they could simply trust Sandra Alberti, director of the education department's Office of Math and Science Standards, who described the new standards as "clearer, fewer, higher" than the preceding standards.
Wow - that is quite an explanation!
See More here

Thursday, June 17, 2010

Commissioner Schundler on Common Core

Commissioner Schundler 's comments on the Common Core Math Standards
“When you reach high school and you aren’t able to do three-digit multiplication, that’s a real problem,” said state Education Commissioner Bret Schundler. “Part of the problem is we move students through so fast that they don’t gain that ability.”
THREE-DIGIT MULTIPLICATION - now that is a huge math issue, Mr. Commissioner!
Still, there was some urgency to Schundler wanting the board to move on the national standards, as New Jersey’s participation will also gain it points on the pending application for $400 million in federal Race to the Top funds.
Yes, THE real truth is purely political.

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Common Standards Get Final, Quiet Approval in Kentucky

Common Standards Get Final, Quiet Approval in Kentucky

See my comments at the end of the article - setting the record straight after misinformation was posted by the anti reformists.

Pulling Weeds in the Garden State

Pulling Weeds in the Garden State
NJEA vs Christie

Friday, June 11, 2010

No magic bullet for education

From the Los Angeles Times, Sunday, May 30, 2010.  EDITORIAL
 No magic bullet for education

America keeps looking for one simple solution for its education shortcomings. There isn't one.

The "unschooling" movement of the 1970s featured open classrooms, in which children studied what they were most interested in, when they felt ready. That was followed by today's back-to-basics, early-start model, in which students complete math worksheets in kindergarten and are supposed to take algebra by eighth grade at the latest. Under the "whole language" philosophy of the 1980s, children were expected to learn to read by having books read to them. By the late 1990s, reading lessons were dominated by phonics, with little time spent on the joys of what reading is all about - unlocking the world of stories and information.

A little more than a decade ago, educators bore no responsibility for their students' failure; it was considered the fault of the students, their parents and unequal social circumstances. Now schools are held liable for whether students learn, regardless of the students' lack of effort or previous preparation, and are held solely accountable for reaching unrealistic goals of achievement.

No wonder schools have a chronic case of educational whiplash. If there's a single aspect of schooling that ought to end, it's the decades of abrupt and destructive swings from one extreme to another. There is no magic in the magic-bullet approach to learning. Charters are neither evil nor saviors; they can be a useful complement to public schools, but they have not blazed a sure-fire path to student achievement. Decreeing that all students will be proficient in math and reading by 2014 hasn't moved us dramatically closer to the mark.

Now consider the latest rush to extremes: teacher evaluations. In its effort to promote school reform with Race to the Top grants, the Obama administration rightly criticized state laws - such as one then in effect in California - that prohibited schools from making student test scores a part of teacher evaluations, and declared that such laws would preclude a state from qualifying for grants.

The firewall was obviously unreasonable. Part of what the public expects from schools is improvement over the years on test scores, which are clearly related to the quality of instruction. We have endorsed the idea of taking scores into account in teacher evaluations, while cautioning that standardized tests are just one of many factors - and not necessarily the most important one - that should go into a thoughtful and relevant performance evaluation.

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

John Wooden & Teaching

 From Michael Martin, Research Analyst, Arizona School Boards Association.
 From a book Mr. Martin may be publishing:

The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) men's basketball team coached by John Wooden won 10 national NCAA championships in 12 years, including seven consecutive national championships from 1966 to 1973, four perfect 30-0 seasons, and in one streak from 1971 to 
1974 won 88 straight games. This despite graduating students each year and acquiring new recruits. And after Wooden retired it was 20 years before UCLA won another national championship. Obviously Wooden knew something few others understood about teaching.

An ESPN series about sports legends asked this legendary college basketball coach, "What is the key to being a good teacher?" John Wooden replied "I think anyone in a position of supervision, if they're not listening to those under them, they're not going to get good results. The supervisor must make sure that all of those under his supervision understand they're working with him, not for him."

It seems pertinent to ask "Why would the greatest college basketball coach in history 'listen' to his students instead of requiring them to listen to him?" Wooden says because that was what made him the greatest basketball coach in history. Wooden did not "teach" basketball, Wooden essentially said he considered his role as collaborating "with" his students. Note also that Wooden described his role as "supervision" rather than teaching, and he described 
"supervision" as "must make sure that all of those under his supervision understand they're working with him, not for him."

Collaboration, not teaching.

Friday, June 4, 2010

National Standards Misconceptions

National Standards Misconceptions

Misconception #1: National standards would make American students more competitive with their international peers. The relationship between standards and academic achievement is unclear. While it's true that many of the countries that outperform the U.S. on international tests have national standards, so do most of the countries that score lower than the U.S. Even when it comes to state standards, the relationship between academic performance and the quality of those standards is not consistent.

Misconception #2: National standards are necessary so parents can understand how their children compare with other children across the country. The information parents need is already available. State tests let parents know how well their children have mastered the curriculum. The National Assessment of Educational Progress and other standardized tests compare students' performance nationally, exposing any "dumbing down" of state tests. Policies should require clear reporting of this data to parents, which in too many states is not standard practice.
Misconception #3: National standards are necessary because of the variance in the quality of state standards. Some states do have higher standards than others. But the same pressures that drive down state standards would likely plague national standards — and if national standards were defined down, they would undercut states with higher standards, such as Massachusetts. This would let the goal of uniformity trump the pursuit of excellence.

Friday, May 21, 2010

Mass. Group Seeks Common-Standards Communications

Mass. Group Seeks Common-Standards Communications

This group is led by Sandra Stotsky who has attacked NJ and is a hired gun by the NJ anti-reformists.

Panel to Translate Research Into Policy Proposals for 12th Grade Preparedness

Panel to Translate Research Into Policy Proposals for 12th Grade Preparedness

WANTED: An Apollo Program for Math

Keith Devlin, Stanford University
The US ranks much worse than most of our economic competitors in the mathematics performance of high school students.
We now have the knowledge to turn that around. We could raise the level of mathematics performance across the board, within a single school generation, so that we are number one in the world. All it would take is a one-time, national investment of $100 million over a five-year period. That’s what it would cost to build and put in place a system that could achieve that change, with the existing school system and the existing teachers. Once built, that system would be self-sustaining.

Monday, May 17, 2010

Dan Meyer: Math class needs a makeover | Video on

Dan Meyer: Math class needs a makeover | Video on

The NJ State Department of Education needs to watch this (as do the anti-reformists).
Then again, maybe the NJDOE are the anti-reformists?

Tuesday, May 11, 2010

Mich. House, Senate Back Plan to Make Algebra II Optional

Mich. House, Senate Back Plan to Make Algebra II Optional

NCTM's new President

President Sets NCTM Agenda

Shaughnessyby NCTM President J. Michael Shaughnessy
NCTM Summing Up, May 2010
This is the first of many opportunities that I will have to share my thoughts with you in the President’s Corner of Summing Up over the next two years. Thank you for your trust and confidence in electing me president of NCTM. I’m looking forward to working with all the great NCTM volunteers and the wonderful NCTM staff on a number of issues and projects during my tenure as your president. 
See more here.

Sunday, May 9, 2010

Make Math a Gateway, Not a Gatekeeper

Make Math a Gateway, Not a Gatekeeper

The story is a familiar one: A high-school dropout and single mother works the supermarket late shift. Motivated to earn a four-year degree so she can have a better life for herself and her 4-year-old daughter, she enrolls in a community college after earning a GED. Three years later, she still hasn't completed the sequence of three remedial math courses required before she can take college-level math. Defeated, she says, "I just couldn't do it anymore." For this student and too many others, the dream stops here.
Read more here

Tuesday, May 4, 2010

N.J. exit exam's high failure rate raises concern

The June graduation of thousands of students could be at risk after most who took New Jersey's retooled alternative exit exam during the winter failed to pass, according to data obtained by the Education Law Center.
In January, 10,308 students statewide took the math Alternative High School Assessment (AHSA), the test given to students who do not pass the High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA). Of those students, 9,514 took all required parts of the test and only 34 percent passed, according to the law center's data.
Of the 4,293 who took all required parts of the language arts test, only 10 percent passed.
In Burlington and Camden Counties, 13 percent of students who took all language-arts sections passed. In Gloucester County, the rate was 6 percent, according to the data.
On the math, about one-third passed in all three counties.
Among Camden City students, only 4 percent passed the reading and writing test, and 8 percent passed the math.

See more here

N.J. Principal Wants Students Off Facebook

N.J. Principal Wants Students Off Facebook

Maybe he wants to ban Internet use too?

Thursday, April 22, 2010

Common Core Final not ready to late May/early June

While at NCTM this week in chilly San Diego, the common core authors have let it be known that the final draft will not be ready to late May or early June.

Wednesday, April 21, 2010

Education Week: Will We Ever Learn?

Education Week: Will We Ever Learn?

Excellent article.
Why do all students need to learn the quadratic formula???

Although many states want to make the course a requirement for graduating from high school, there appears to be no need to do so. Northeastern University sociologist Michael Handel has found that only 9 percent of people in the workforce ever use this knowledge, and that fewer than 20 percent of managerial, professional, or technical workers report using any Algebra 2 material. In fact, the National Assessment of Adult Literacy shows that more than 20 percent of adults (and about 50 percent of minority adults) never learn fractions well enough to apply them to common tasks. When we fixate on Algebra 2’s polynomial functions, command and depth of knowledge are sacrificed for ill-learned, and quickly forgotten, breadth.

Monday, April 19, 2010

Singapore's City Upon a Hill

Singapore's City Upon a Hill

I bet you won't find this information about Singapore at those websites and anti-reformists who love Singapore and hate NSF programs.

Tuesday, April 13, 2010

How Much Do Career- and College-Readiness Overlap?

How Much Do Career- and College-Readiness Overlap?

There is certainly an overlap, says ACTE Executive Director Jan Bray, but the skills sets are not identical.

Thursday, April 1, 2010

Center for Elementary Mathematics and Science Education (University of Chicago) Response to the Common Core Standards Initiative

Center for Elementary Mathematics and Science Education (University of Chicago) Response to the Common Core Standards Initiative.

On March 10, 2010 the National Governors Association, the Council of Chief State School Officers, Achieve, and other organizations issued draft Common Core Standards (CCS) for K-12 mathematics and reading. We at CEMSE have examined the mathematics standards for Grades K-6 and have found them to be seriously flawed.  If we are to have national standards, then those standards should be designed to prepare students for life in the 21st century. We believe that the proposed CCS standards for mathematics in Grades K-6 would promote a back-to-basics curriculum that ignores the profound changes that have taken place in the last 50 years. CCS’s largely paper-and-pencil approach to mathematics in K-6 is obsolete.  See the full report here.
We believe CCS’s K-6 mathematics standards have seven serious shortcomings:
  1. An overemphasis on paper-and-pencil arithmetic.
  2. Inadequate exposure to concepts of data and probability.
  3. A disregard of existing and emerging technology.
  4. An outmoded approach to geometry.
  5. A neglect of applications of mathematics.
  6. An interpretation of “focus” that ignores how people learn.
  7. An overemphasis on teaching by telling.

Tuesday, March 30, 2010

NJ RTTP application

The Federal Government's review of NJ's Race To The Top application is available for public review here

It should NOT be surprising to learn that NJ's state deparrtment was criticized for a LACK of CLARITY and COHERENECE.

Below is the exact quote:
The applicant [NJ department of education] articulated a thoughtful reform agenda aligned to the four education goals The path to achieving its goal however, lacks clarity and coherence. The expected outcomes for achievement and changes, as outlined in the plan lack rigor due to clarity. 

Education Week: N.J. Gov. Offers Wage-Freeze Incentive to Schools

Education Week: N.J. Gov. Offers Wage-Freeze Incentive to Schools

Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Kean University Professor

Professor Terry Yung testified to the NJ State Board of Education on March 17th.
His full testimony can be seen here.  
It is almost laughable and down right embarrasing to read his testimony.
He wrote:

I found it was amazing that when the students cannot do two digit multiplication, then some teacher created “Lattice Multiplication” so that students do not need to memorize the times table.  
This is a math professor who thinks a teacher invented Lattice Multiplication.  

Well Dr. Yung, Lattice Multiplication was invented thousands of years ago by the Egyptians.  I hope Yung don't teach History of Mathematics at Kean.  It is any wonder why we DON'T want mathematicians anywhere near K-12 education.  

Florida Senate voted to shift shift to merit pay for teachers - South Florida

Florida Senate voted to shift shift to merit pay for teachers - South Florida

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Tuesday, March 23, 2010

Fordham Foundation review of Common Core

The Fordham Institute's expert reviewers have analyzed the draft Common Core K-12 education standards (made public on March 10) according to rigorous criteria. Their analyses lead to a grade of A- for the draft mathematics standards.  See review here.
Note that this is the anti-reformist group that gave the NJ standards a D grade and the Fordham foundation is constantly referred to be the anti-reformist crazies in NJ.

An Open Letter to Arne Duncan

An Open Letter to Arne Duncan

Thursday, March 18, 2010

Is 'Career Ready' Getting the Short End of the Stick?

Is 'Career Ready' Getting the Short End of the Stick?

NCTM position on Common Core

NCTM's position on the common core is available here.

Although the Council has been included and involved in this process, the current draft of these standards raises some concerns. Although some elements of the current draft are consistent with NCTM’s positions—particularly, those articulated in the Council’s Standards publications—other elements need further development and interpretation. NCTM’s public comments on the current draft will be posted soon on the NCTM Web site. Throughout this process NCTM has made the following points:
  • A challenging and coherent curriculum, focused in scope and deep in meaning, is a critically important step in learning mathematics with understanding.
  • NCTM’s official positions, particularly as delineated in the Council’s landmark Standards publications, address much of the content that is included in the Common Core Standards. These positions find clearest expression in NCTM’s Guiding Principles for Mathematics Curriculum and AssessmentPrinciples and Standards for School MathematicsFocus in High School Mathematics:  Reasoning and Sense Making, andCurriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics: A Quest for Coherence.
  • Problem solving, reasoning and sense making, connections within mathematics and to other contexts, mathematical representations, communication, and the use of technology are essential elements of school mathematics and need to be represented and well integrated in the Common Core Standards.

Wednesday, March 17, 2010

Joint Statement of Early Childhood Health and Education Professionals on the Common Core Standards Initiative

Joint Statement of Early Childhood Health and Education Professionals on the Common Core Standards Initiative

We have grave concerns about the core standards for young children now being written by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers. The draft standards made public in January conflict with compelling new research in cognitive science, neuroscience, child development, and early childhood education about how young children learn, what they need to learn, and how best to teach them in kindergarten and the early grades.

We have no doubt that promoting language and mathematics is crucial to closing the achievement gap. As written, however, the proposed standards raise the following concerns:
  • Such standards will lead to long hours of instruction in literacy and math. Young children learn best in active, hands-on ways and in the context of meaningful real-life experiences. New research shows that didactic instruction of discrete reading and math skills has already pushed play-based learning out of many kindergartens. But the current proposal goes well beyond most existing state standards in requiring, for example, that every kindergartner be able to write “all upper- and lowercase letters” and “read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.”
  • They will lead to inappropriate standardized testing. Current state standards for young children have led to the heavy use of standardized tests in kindergarten and the lower grades, despite their unreliability for assessing children under age eight. The proposed core standards will intensify inappropriate testing in place of broader observational assessments that better serve young children’s needs.
  • Didactic instruction and testing will crowd out other important areas of learning. Young children’s learning must go beyond literacy and math. They need to learn about families and communities, to take on challenges, and to develop social, emotional, problem-solving, self-regulation, and perspective-taking skills. Overuse of didactic instruction and testing cuts off children’s initiative, curiosity, and imagination, limiting their later engagement in school and the workplace, not to mention responsible citizenship. And it interferes with the growth of healthy bodies and essential sensory and motor skills—all best developed through playful and active hands-on learning.
  • There is little evidence that such standards for young children lead to later success. While an introduction to books in early childhood is vital, research on the links between the intensive teaching of discrete reading skills in kindergarten and later success is inconclusive at best. Many of the countries with top-performing high-school students do not begin formal schooling until age six or seven. We must test these ideas more thoroughly before establishing nationwide policies and practices.
We therefore call on the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers to suspend their current drafting of standards for children in kindergarten through grade three.
We further call for the creation of a consortium of early childhood researchers, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, cognitive scientists, master teachers, and school leaders to develop comprehensive guidelines for effective early care and teaching that recognize the right of every child to a healthy start in life and a developmentally appropriate education.

Education Week: Stagnating NAEP Math Scores Seen as No Surprise

Education Week: Stagnating NAEP Math Scores Seen as No Surprise

Saturday, March 13, 2010

Proposal sets new standards for schools in New Jersey

See article from Gloucester County Times here on the common core standards.
Willa Spicer, Deputy Commissioner, is quoted often (actually she is the only one quoted) and Ms. Spicer thinks the standards are just fantastic.   Did she even read them?

Friday, March 12, 2010

Minnesota reaction to common core

While NJ wants to adopt the common core as quickly as possible.
Many states are not so enthusiastic.
See Minnesota's Governor reaction here

Tuesday, February 23, 2010

First-Class State Standards Are Better than Third-Class National Standards?

The irony of this paper is one of its co-author, Sandra Stotsky, is a member of the common core validation committee but she is arguing against the common core.  Stotsky has also testified in NJ against our NJ math standards.  

She is from Massachusetts and believes that her state and California should be the model to follow.  Also note her chilling alternative to the common core, adopt the Achieve Algebra II assessment.  

Maybe the common core is not so bad after all!!

The Ties That Bind Common Standards to Title I Aid

The Ties That Bind Common Standards to Title I Aid

Education Week: Experts Lay Out Vision for Future Assessments

Education Week: Experts Lay Out Vision for Future Assessments

Wednesday, February 17, 2010

Bunkum Awards

The Bunkum Awards highlight nonsensical, confusing, and disingenuous education reports produced by think tanks. They are given each year by the Think Tank Review Project to think tank reports judged to have most egregiously undermined informed discussion and sound policy making.

Once again the Fordham Foundation (has won several years) and Chester Finn are winners of this dubious award.

Behind the Curtain: Assessing the Case for National Curriculum Standards | Neal McCluskey | Cato Institute: Policy Analysis

Behind the Curtain: Assessing the Case for National Curriculum Standards | Neal McCluskey | Cato Institute: Policy Analysis

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Behind the Curtain: Assessing the Case for National Curriculum Standards | Neal McCluskey | Cato Institute: Policy Analysis

Behind the Curtain: Assessing the Case for National Curriculum Standards | Neal McCluskey | Cato Institute: Policy Analysis

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Tuesday, February 16, 2010

Effects of the California High School Exit Exam on Student Persistence, Achievement, and Graduation

Effects of the California High School Exit Exam on Student Persistence, Achievement, and Graduation by Sean F. Reardon, Allison Atteberry, Nicole Arshan, and Michal Kurlaender

This study, released April 21, 2009, provides the most detailed analysis of the effects of the California High School Exit Exam to date. The study finds that the policy has lowered the graduation rates of low-achieving students of color and of girls by 15-20 percentage points. Moreover, the policy has had no positive effect on students' academic achievement.

In new study, high school exit exam gets a failing grade

In new study, high school exit exam gets a failing grade

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In new study, high school exit exam gets a failing grade

In new study, high school exit exam gets a failing grade

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Saturday, February 6, 2010

Playing to Learn

Great op-ed piece in the NY Times on Feb 1st.

The Obama administration is planning some big changes to how we measure the success or failure of schools and how we apportion federal money based on those assessments. It’s great that the administration is trying to undertake reforms, but if we want to make sure all children learn, we will need to overhaul the curriculum itself. Our current educational approach — and the testing that is driving it — is completely at odds with what scientists understand about how children develop during the elementary school years and has led to a curriculum that is strangling children and teachers alike.

Read more here

Friday, January 15, 2010

Math progress index

New Jersey earns high grades from Quality Counts 2010 on the Math Progress Index which ranks the states on their mathematics proficiency (and improvement) of their students over time.
See here for the rankings.

Education Week: Executive Summary

Education Week: Executive Summary
Created for Quality Counts 2010, a new index finds inconsistent showings in the nation and states in math performance, improvement, and opportunity.

Tuesday, January 12, 2010

Gauging the Gaps: A Deeper Look at Student Achievement

As mentioned in my previous post, here is the link to the EdTrust report Gauging the Gaps: A Deeper Look at Student Achievement.

Eight states, including New Jersey, and the District of Columbia were recognized as top states for achieving progress for all student groups under NAEP’s reading and math scores for both grades four and eight. New Jersey was one of six top states for having low-income and minority students who perform substantially higher on all areas of NAEP than their peers in other states.

Friday, January 8, 2010

Teachers should be seen not heard


Teachers Should Be Seen and Not Heard

I am a fly on the wall sitting at a table. Seated at a round table are three state governors, one state senator, a Harvard professor and author, and a strange little man who assumes the role of group moderator. The strange little man asks the group to talk about their experiences at the education conference. The ex governor from the South begins to talk about how the traditional school model is not working and the problem of too many teachers who do not understand what they teach. Teachers, he complains, are not prepared to teach in 21st century classrooms because they possess, in his words, "only 20th century skills." He does not provide specific examples or elaborate upon his theory but the other guests at the table nod their heads in agreement.


Merit Pay

N.J. education commissioner unveils system tying student performance to teacher evaluations

Tuesday, January 5, 2010

Selective schools contribute to inequality in education?

Princeton University researcher finds selective schools contribute to inequality in education By Bob Braun/Star-Ledger Columnist

Can the same kind of national scientific effort that produced the atom bomb — and ended the war in the Pacific — be used to close the so-far intractable educational achievement gap that afflicts African-American students? Read more here.